Class 10 Science

These NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science are prepared by our subject experts in such a way that the students understand all the topics covered in the syllabus of CBSE 10 science quite effectively. It also helps you to perceive the topic thoroughly which is very important not only from the point of class 10 examination but better understanding lays a great foundation to your future studies and many times question from the textbooks are asked in competitive examinations. We have covered both intext and exercise questions in detail.

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science book all Chapters in brief:

Chapter 1 – Chemical Reactions and Equations

The first chapter of Class 10 Science will teach you about chemical reactions and how to write equations, how to conduct combination and decomposition reactions and more. In the previous classes, we have learned about physical and chemical changes of matter. Whenever a chemical change occurs, we can say that a chemical reaction has taken place. A complete chemical reaction represents the reactants, products and their physical states symbolically. You will also study how to write a chemical reaction which is a symbolic representation of chemical reaction. The chapter also explains how various chemical equations can be balanced in different states.

The next subtopic teaches about various chemical reactions such as Combination Reaction, Decomposition reaction, Displacement Reaction, and Double Displacement Reaction along with various examples and chemical reactions. On the basis of energy, exothermic and endothermic reactions are explained. Exothermic reactions are those reactions in which heat is given out along with the products and endothermic reactions are those reactions in which energy is absorbed. Then redox reaction is explained which are a combination of reduction reaction and oxidation reaction. The chapter explains all types of reactions with suitable examples with their respective chemical equations.

Chapter 2 – Acids, Bases and Salts

This Chapter is all about acids, bases and salts. In your previous classes, you have learned that the sour and bitter tastes of food are due to acids and bases, respectively, present in them. We all know that acids are sour in taste and change the colour of blue litmus to red, whereas, bases are bitter and change the colour of the red litmus to blue. In this chapter, we will study the reactions of acids and bases, how acids and bases cancel out each other’s effects and many more interesting things that we use in our day-to-day life. You will get to understand the chemical properties of acids and bases, how acids and bases react with metals, how do metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates react with acids, how do acids and bases react with each other, reaction of metallic oxides with acids and reaction of a non-metallic oxide with base explained with suitable examples and various chemical reactions. And then explains what do all acids and bases have in common with a suitable example which gives the conclusion that acid solution in water conducts electricity. Students get to learn various experiments on what happens to acid or a base in a water solution and how strong are acid or base solutions by making use of universal indication. Along with it, you will get to learn about the importance of pH in everyday life. The chapter ends with explaining in detail about salt preparation, properties and its uses.

Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals

Here, you will learn about the physical properties of metals and non-metals. Metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile and are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are solid at room temperature, except mercury which is a liquid. The physical properties of metals are explained on various parameters such as ductility, malleability, tensile, strength, etc. On the basis of physical properties, metals and non-metals are differentiated. Some of the examples of non-metals are carbon, sulphur, iodine, oxygen, hydrogen, etc. The non-metals are either solids or gases except bromine which is a liquid. Under the subtopic chemical properties of metals, chemical reactions are discussed with oxygen gas, water, acids and other metal salts. On the basis of reactivity series, the reactions and conditions depend. The reactivity series tops potassium as the most reactive and Gold as the least reactive. The compounds formed in this manner by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are known as ionic compounds or electrovalent compounds. Some of the general properties for ionic compounds are physical nature, melting and boiling points, solubility and conduction of electricity. Metal is extracted from its ore and then refining them for use is known as metallurgy. Metals are refined by using the method of electrolytic refining. The end topic explains about corrosion and how it can be prevented.

Chapter 4 – Carbon and its Compounds

In this chapter, we will study some more interesting compounds and their properties. Also, we shall be learning about carbon an element which is of immense significance to us in both its elemental form and in the combined form. Carbon is a versatile element that forms the basis for all living organisms and many of the things we use. Covalent bonds are formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms so that both can achieve a completely filled outermost shell. Carbon forms covalent bonds with itself and other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine. Organic compounds are categorized into saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds. Saturated compounds are compounds with only a single bond. Unsaturated carbon compounds are compounds with a double or triple bond. The saturated compounds of carbon and hydrogen are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane and hexane. This chapter also explains some of the chemical properties of carbon compounds such as combustion, oxidation, addition reaction, substitution reaction. Ethanol and ethanoic acid are carbon compounds of importance in our daily lives. Soap and detergents are studied with their chemical structures and properties and their difference is also discussed. Detergents are usually used to make shampoos and products for cleaning clothes.

Chapter 5 – Periodic Classification of Elements

Mendeleev’s Periodic Law was modified and the atomic number was adopted as the basis of Modern Periodic Table and the Modern Periodic Law can be stated as follows: ‘Properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic number’.

Elements in the Modern Periodic Table are arranged in 18 vertical columns called groups and 7 horizontal rows called periods. Elements thus arranged show periodicity of properties including atomic size, valency or combining capacity and metallic and non-metallic character. The valency of an element is determined by the number of valence electrons present in the outermost shell of its atom. The term atomic size refers to the radius of an atom.

Chapter 6 – Life Processes

NCERT Class 10 Science chapter 6 explains about life processes. There are six life processes that all living organisms perform. They are movement, respiration, growth, reproduction, excretion and nutrition. The chapter also teaches about nutrition which means the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism and repair. Nutritional stages are ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion. Nutrition is further divided into Autotrophic Nutrition and Heterotrophic Nutrition. Autotrophic nutrition involves the intake of simple inorganic materials from the environment and using an external energy source like the Sun to synthesize complex high-energy organic material. Heterotrophic nutrition involves the intake of complex material prepared by other organisms. Different types of heterotrophic nutrition are parasitic nutrition, saprophytic nutrition and holozoic nutrition. The next topic is nutrition in human beings. The various steps of nutrition are ingestion, digestion, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, bile, absorption, assimilation and egestion. The next subtopic is respiration in which the human respiratory system is explained beautifully. Respiration may be aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration makes more energy available to the organism. For plants, the soil is the nearest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals. In human beings, the transport of materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, food and excretory products is a function of the circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels. In highly differentiated plants, transport of water, minerals, food and other materials is a function of the vascular tissue which consists of xylem and phloem. In human beings, excretory products in the form of soluble nitrogen compounds are removed by the nephrons in the kidneys. Plants use a variety of techniques to get rid of waste material.

Chapter 7 – Control and Coordination

In Chapter 7 teaches about control and co-ordination which are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies. The responses of the nervous system can be classified as a reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages. It gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles. Chemical coordination is seen in both plants and animals. Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to achieve the desired effect. A feedback mechanism regulates the action of the hormones.

Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce

Unlike other life processes, reproduction is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. It involves the creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process. Depending on their body design various organisms use different modes of reproduction. In fission, many bacteria and protozoa simply divide into two or more daughter cells. Organisms such as hydra can regenerate if they are broken into pieces. They can also give out buds which mature into new individuals. Roots, stems and leaves of some plants develop into new plants through vegetative propagation. These are examples of asexual reproduction where new generations are created from a single individual. Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a new individual. DNA copying mechanisms create variations which are useful for ensuring the survival of the species. Modes of sexual reproduction allow for greater variation to be generated.

Reproduction in flowering plants involves the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination. This is followed by fertilisation. Changes in the body at puberty, such as an increase in breast size in girls and new facial hair growth in boys, are signs of sexual maturation. The male reproductive system in human beings consists of testes which produce sperms, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis. The female reproductive system in human beings consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. Fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube. Contraception to avoid pregnancy can be achieved by the use of condoms, oral pills, copper -T and other methods.

Chapter 9 – Heredity and Evolution

We have seen that reproductive processes give rise to new individuals that are similar, but subtly different. We have discussed how some amount of variation is produced even during asexual reproduction. The Rules for the Inheritance of Traits in human beings related to the fact that both the father and the mother contribute practically equal amounts of genetic material to the child. This means that each trait can be influenced by both paternal and maternal DNA. Sex can be determined by different factors in various species. Changes in the non-reproductive tissues caused by environmental factors are not inheritable. Speciation may take place when the variation is combined with geographical isolation. Evolutionary relationships are traced in the classification of organisms. Tracing common ancestors back in time leads us to the idea that at some point in time, non-living material must have given rise to life. Evolution can be worked out by the study of not just living species, but also fossils. Complex organs may have evolved because of the survival advantage of even the intermediate stages. Organs or features may be adapted to new functions during the course of evolution. Evolution cannot be said to progress from lower forms to higher forms. Rather, evolution seems to have given rise to more complex body designs even while the simpler body designs continue to flourish. Study of the evolution of human beings indicates that all of us belong to a single species that evolved in Africa and spread across the world in stages.

Chapter 10 – Light Reflection and Refraction

In Chapter10, we will study the phenomena of reflection and refraction of light using the straight-line propagation of light. These basic concepts will help us in the study of some of the optical phenomena in nature. The chapter also discusses the reflection of light by spherical mirrors and refraction of light and their application in real life. Light is a source of energy which generates a sensation of vision in human beings. Light seems to travel in straight lines. The different types of a spherical mirror, convex and concave are taught. The various terms related to spherical mirrors like the centre of curvature, the radius of curvature, etc, focus, pole, etc are discussed with ray diagrams. Uses of a spherical mirror are also discussed in this chapter. Mirror formula gives the relationship between the object-distance, image-distance, and focal length of a spherical mirror. The focal length of a spherical mirror is equal to half its radius of curvature.

Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where its speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light rays toward the normal to the boundary between the two media. The phenomena of refraction can be understood easily by the concepts of the refractive index and optical density. The refractive index of a transparent medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that in the medium. In case of a rectangular glass slab, the refraction takes place at both the air-glass interface and glass-air interface. The emergent ray is parallel to the direction of the incident ray. Lens formula gives the relationship between the object-distance, image-distance, and the focal length of a spherical lens. Power of a lens is the reciprocal of its focal length. The SI unit of power of a lens is dioptre.

Chapter 11 -The Human Eye and Colourful World

In this chapter, we will study some of the optical phenomena in nature. The chapter also discusses the rainbow formation, splitting of white light and blue colour of the sky. The human eye is one of the most valuable and sensitive sense organs. It enables us to see the wonderful world and the colours around us. The ability of the eye to focus on both near and distant objects, by adjusting its focal length, is called the accommodation of the eye. The smallest distance, at which the eye can see objects clearly without strain, is called the near point of the eye or the least distance of distinct vision. For a young adult with normal vision, it is about 25cm. The common refractive defects of vision include myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. The eye loses its power of accommodation at old age. The splitting of white light into its component colours is called dispersion. Scattering of light causes the blue colour of the sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset.

Chapter 12 – Electricity

Electricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools, hospitals, industries and so on. It is a phenomenon related to the flow of charge. A stream of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current. Conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. The SI unit of electric current is ampere. To set the electrons in motion in an electric circuit, we use a cell or a battery. A cell generates a potential difference across its terminals. It is measured in volts (V). Resistance is a property that resists the flow of electrons in a conductor. It controls the magnitude of the current. The SI unit of resistance is Ohm. Ohm’s law: the potential difference across the ends of a resistor is directly proportional to the current through it, provided its temperature remains the same. The resistance of a conductor depends directly on its length, inversely on its areas of cross-section, and also on the material of the conductor. The equivalent resistance of several resistors in series is equal to the sum of their individual resistances.

Chapter 13 – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

In this chapter you will study magnetic fields and such electromagnetic effects along with electromagnets and electric motors which involve the magnetic effect of electric current, and electric generators which involve the electric effect of moving magnets. A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end, which points towards the north, is called a north pole, and the other hand, which points towards the south, is called a south pole. A magnetic field exists in the region surrounding a magnet in which the force of the magnet can be detected. Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is a path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take. Field lines are shown closer together where the magnetic field is greater. A metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field. The field lines about the wire consist of a series of concentric circles whose direction is given by the right-hand rule. The pattern of the magnetic field around a conductor due to an electric current flowing through it depends on the shape of the conductor. The magnetic field of a solenoid carrying a current is similar to that of a bar magnet. An electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire. A current-carrying conductor, when placed in a magnetic field, experiences a force. If the direction of the field and that of the current are mutually perpendicular to each other, then the force acting on the conductor will be perpendicular to both and will be given by Fleming’s left-hand rule. This is the basis of an electric motor. An electric motor is a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy.

Chapter 14 – Sources of Energy

Our energy requirements increase with our standard of living. In order to fulfil our energy requirements, we try to improve the efficiency of energy usage and also try and exploit new sources of energy. The chapter discusses different sources of energy and they are conventional sources of energy, which we keep on using for many years. It includes fossil fuels, thermal power plant and hydropower plants. The advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. After those improvements in the technology for using conventional sources of energy is also discussed such as Biomass and wind energy. Next, you will study the topic of alternative or non-conventional energy resources. It includes solar energy, in which energy is generated through the solar cell and solar panel. Energy can be generated from the sea such as Tidal energy, wave energy and ocean thermal energy. Energy can also be generated from the earth’s crust, known as geothermal energy. Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. The energy source we select would depend on factors like the ease and cost of extracting energy from the source, the efficiency of the technology available for using that source of energy and the environmental impact of using that source. Many of the sources ultimately derive their energy from the Sun. All the topics are explained with the advantages and disadvantages of it.

Chapter 15 – Our Environment

This chapter discusses how various components in the environment interact with each other and how we impact the environment. The various components of an ecosystem are interdependent. The producers make the energy from sunlight available to the rest of the ecosystem. There is a loss of energy as we go from one trophic level to the next, this limits the number of trophic levels in a food chain. The food-chain is explained in detail with example according to nature such as in the forest, in grassland and in the pond. Human activities have an impact on the environment. The use of chemicals like CFCs has endangered the ozone layer. Since the ozone layer protects against the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, this could damage the environment. The waste we generate may be biodegradable or non-biodegradable. The disposal of the waste we generate is causing serious environmental problems.

Chapter 16 – Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

In this chapter, we will look at some of our resources and how we are using them. Our resources like forests, wildlife, water, coal and petroleum need to be used in a sustainable manner. We can reduce pressure on the environment by sincerely applying the maxim of ‘Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle’ in our lives. Management of forest resources has to take into account the interests of various stakeholders. The harnessing of water resources by building dams has social, economic and environmental implications. Alternatives to large dams exist. These are locale-specific and may be developed so as to give local people control over their local resources. The fossil fuels, coal and petroleum, will ultimately be exhausted. Because of this and because their combustion pollutes our environment, we need to use these resources judiciously.

Class 10 Mathematics

Chapter 1 – Real Numbers

The first chapter in CBSE Class 10 talks about HCF and LCM. These are followed by Euclid’s division lemma, rational and irrational numbers, and conversion of fractions to decimals and decimals to fractions. Phoenixtutor NCERT solutions have the solutions to all the questions present in all four exercises. These solutions help you to revise and practice with the easiest methods provided by our experts.

Chapter 2 – Polynomials

Chapter 2 is on polynomials. Our classes will tell you how to efficiently verify the relation between zeros and the coefficient. The NCERT solutions also explain the method to find the zeros of polynomials and the solutions for quadratic polynomials.

Chapter 3 – Pairs of Linear Equations in Two Variables

Chapter 3 is the study of algebraic and graphical methods for solving linear equations. Through our solutions, revise the elimination method and cross-multiplication method that can be used in solving problems based on linear equations.

Chapter 4 – Quadratic Equations

Chapter 4 is about converting word problems to quadratic equations. By using our expert classes or solutions to your Maths-related questions as your reference, you will be able to find the roots of a quadratic equation in this chapter.

Chapter 5 – Arithmetic Progressions

Chapter 5 has questions on arithmetic progressions. To help you understand the concept of arithmetic progression, our experts have shared detailed answers for the NCERT textbook questions in our NCERT Solutions for Class 10.

Chapter 6 – Triangles

Chapter 6 includes solutions for the important topic of triangles. Understand how the shape of a triangle is formed. Solve problems related to the properties of triangles in this chapter. Study the different types of triangles such as isosceles triangle, right-angled triangle, equilateral triangle and applications of triangles in trigonometry with Class 10 Maths NCERT book solutions.

Chapter 7 – Coordinate Geometry

Chapter 7 improves your knowledge about concepts such as slopes, origins, axes, coordinates etc. In this chapter, you will learn how to find the coordinates as per the given data. Explore answers such as finding the distance between two points using their coordinates and more.

Chapter 8 – Introduction to Trigonometry

Chapter 8 to practice problems related to trigonometry without stress. Understand how to tackle problems on trigonometric ratios of angles from NCERT Solutions.

Chapter 9 – Some Applications of Trigonometry

Get detailed answers or solutions on applications of trigonometry as per the latest CBSE Class 10 NCERT books. Learn to solve questions on finding the heights and distances of various objects. Also, revise the various applications of trigonometry with our NCERT solutions for Class 10 Maths Chapter 9.

Chapter 10 – Circles

Understand concepts such as tangent, secant and number tangents from a point to a circle and more with a proper solution. Also, learn about the relevance of the radius, diameter and centre while studying the topic of circles in detail.

Chapter 11 – Constructions

Chapter 11 solutions will help you to attempt questions that involve drawing tangents to a circle. Also, find answers on accurately creating a division of the line segments in our textbook solutions. Additionally, you will learn how to give the mathematical justification or solution of a construction.

Chapter 12 – Areas Related to Circles

Solve problems related to ‘Perimeter and Area of a Circle’, ‘Areas of Combinations of Plane Figures’ and ‘Areas of Sector and Segment of a Circle’. Use our classes for this Chapter 12 to revise thoroughly.

Chapter 13 – Surface Areas and Volumes

In CBSE Class 10, the ‘Surface Areas and Volumes’ chapter is a part of the mensuration unit. You can find detailed explanations of these concepts in our classes. Chapter 13 solutions will help you to practice the problems with the help of the NCERT solutions for each question. 

Chapter 14 – Statistics

Study with ease the concept of grouped and ungrouped data in Statistics. Without taking any stress, you can now revise cumulative frequency curves by practicing our expert solutions for this chapter. Learn how to find the mean, mode or median of grouped data from our NCERT solutions. Also, learn to solve Statistics questions by understanding the concept of cumulative frequency distribution and get a proper final solution.

Chapter 15 – Probability

Chapter 15 includes detailed answers on probability-based questions. These NCERT solutions will teach you how to solve simple problems based on the concept of theoretical probability. 

Phoenixtutor – NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Maths

At Phoenixtutor, you will get chapter-wise NCERT solutions for Class 10 Maths classes. Instead of merely providing solutions, our experts also add concept notes to help you understand the solutions better. You can follow a step-by-step learning approach by studying one chapter at a time. If you need help to explore and understand the concepts with proper solutions, you can check out our Class 10 Maths video. Also, check out for the live classes that can be availed through our subscription plans. 

Times have changed, and the best in e-learning platforms are now available to you anytime, anywhere through Phoenixtutor. You no longer must wait to go to a teacher in a physical classroom to get your doubts to be cleared. Phoenixtutor experts are available online through our live sessions to clear your doubts related to your topics with proper solutions.

Class 9 Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science are provided here for the new academic session 2020-2021. To help students find the right approach towards the CBSE questions, subject experts at Phoenixtutor have prepared the precise and comprehensive solutions for Class 9 Science. These solutions are offered to help students clear all their fundamental concepts and excel in the class 9 Science Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

Chapter 1. Matter in Our Surroundings

This chapter gives details of the physical and chemical properties of matter. The structure of a matter is also explained in detail to give a view of its constitution. Major topics discussed in Class 9 Science chapter 1 are as follows:

Physical nature of matter

Characteristics of particles of matter

States of matter – Solid, liquid and gas,

Change of one state to another state by melting, freezing & evaporation, Evaporation

Effect of pressure and temperature on change of state of matter, and

Factors affecting the rate of evaporation

Chapter 2. Is Matter Around Us Pure

In this chapter, students get to learn the basic concepts of mixtures and solutions. Some of the important topics discussed in this chapter are as follows:

Introduction to mixtures and their types

Details about solutions, suspensions and colloidal solutions

Separating the components of a mixture

Understanding physical and chemical changes

Types of pure substances, and

Difference between mixtures and compounds

Chapter 3. Atoms and Molecules

This chapter gives details of the unit particles constituting matter and explains different laws verifying the existence of these particles. Some major topics to learn in this chapter are as follows:

Laws of chemical combination

Dalton’s atomic theory

Size, symbol and mass of an atom

Details about molecules and Ions

Writing chemical formula of simple compounds, and

Molecular mass and mole concepts

Chapter 4. Structure of the Atom

In this chapter, you will study various atomic models proposed by different scientists. Here, students will learn the in-depth details of the structure of matter. Below are given main topics covered in class 9 Science chapter 4, Structure of the Atom are as follows:

Thomson’s model of an atom

Rutherford’s model of an atom and its limitations

Bohr’s model of an atom

Introduction to neutrons

Distribution of electrons in different orbits

Valency of an element

Atomic number and mass number, and

Isotopes and isobars

Chapter 5. The Fundamental Unit of Life

This chapter deals with the levels of organization in the body of organisms. It mainly discusses the details structure and functions of different cells constituting life. Students must go through the following topics before dealing with the NCERT solutions of class 9 Science Chapter 5 are as follows:

Cell wall and cell membrane

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Various cell organelles responsible for its functioning, and

Effect of hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions on a cell 

Chapter 6. Tissues

In this chapter, students will get to learn about the Plant tissues like meristematic and permanent tissues. Some important concepts discussed in this chapter are as follows:

Details of meristematic and permanent tissues

Animal tissues: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue

Chapter 7. Diversity in Living Organisms

In this chapter students will learn the classification of organisms and importance of various life forms on earth. Some major topics explained in this chapter are as follows:

Basis of classification of organisms

Classification and evolution

The hierarchy of classification groups, and

Nomenclature of organisms

Chapter 8. Motion

Here, you will learn about different types of motion and various related phenomena like speed, Velocity, Distance, Displacement and Acceleration. Major topics to be learned from this chapter are as follows:

Motion along a straight line

Uniform and non-uniform motion

Rate of change of velocity

Graphical representation of motion

Deriving equations of motion by graphical method, and

Uniform circular motion

Chapter 9. Force and Laws of Motion

This chapter explains the concept of balanced and unbalanced forces. You will also get to learn some important laws of motion. Major topics to learn from this chapter are as follows:

First law of motion

Inertia and mass

Second law of motion and its mathematical formulation

Third law of motion, and

Conservation of momentum and its applications in daily life.

Chapter 10. Gravitation

In this chapter, you learn about the depths of motion of objects under the influence of the earth’s gravitational pull.

Universal law of gravitation

Importance of the universal law of gravitation

Concept of Free fall

Motion of objects under the influence of gravitational force of the earth

Mass and weight

Weight of an object on the moon

Thrust and pressure

Pressure in fluids: Buoyancy, and

Archimedes’ Principle.

Chapter 11. Work and Energy

In this chapter, you will learn about the scientific conception of work and also different forms of energy. This chapter will take you through the details of the following topics are as follows:

Work and its scientific conception

Energy and its different forms

Deriving mathematic formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy

Law of conservation of energy, and

Commercial unit of energy.

Chapter 12. Sound

This chapter deals with sound and various phenomena related to it like echo and reverberation. Some other important sound-related concepts and observations explained in this chapter are as follows:

Production and propagation of sound

Sound needs a medium to travel

Characteristics of a sound wave

Speed of sound in different media

Reflection of Sound causing echo and reverberation

Uses of multiple reflections of sound

Range of Hearing

Applications of Ultrasound

Use of SONAR to measure the distance, direction and speed of underwater objects. and

Structure of Human Ear.

Chapter 13. Why Do We Fall ill

This chapter of class 9 Science deals with the details of personal health and diseases. Here, you will get to learn about the significances of good health and various reasons causing health impairment. Important topics to be learned from this chapter include are as follows:

Health and its Failure

Distinctions between ‘healthy’ and ‘disease-free’

Disease and its causes

Acute and chronic diseases

Infectious and non-infectious diseases, how do they spread

Organ-specific and tissue-specific manifestations

Principles of treatment of a disease, and

Principles of prevention of a disease.

Chapter 14. Natural Resources

In this chapter, you will learn about the importance of the three most essential natural resources- air, water and soil. You will also learn about the importance of conservation of natural resources to maintain a healthy environment. Some major topics explained in this chapter are as follows:

Role of the atmosphere in climate control

Movement of air to cause winds

Pollution of air

Water: Its importance and pollution

Mineral Riches in the Soil

Biogeochemical Cycles: water-cycle, nitrogen-cycle, carbon-cycle, oxygen-cycle

Greenhouse effect, and

Ozone Layer: Its importance and depletion.

Chapter 15. Improvement in Food Resources

This chapter gives details of improvement in crop yields to ensure sufficient quantity and good quality food products. You will learn about sustainable practices in agriculture and animal husbandry. Below are given the major topics explained in class 9 Science chapter 15 are as follows:

Crop variety improvement

Crop production and crop protection management

Cattle farming

Poultry farming

Egg and broiler production

Fish production, and

Bee-keeping.

Class 9 Mathematics

Phoenixtutor solutions for Class 9 Mathematics are useful for comparing your version of answers to the textbook questions. The answers are prepared by our expert teachers as per the CBSE exam guidelines, enabling you to get the necessary support while revising your Mathematics lessons. Other than the CBSE Class 9 Maths solutions, you can also check our solutions for Science lessons like Physics, Chemistry & Biology. By utilizing our Class 9th Mathematics solutions, easily grasp concepts in Class 9 Mathematics in your final exams.

Chapter 1 – Number Systems

This chapter covers concepts such as rational numbers, irrational numbers, laws of exponents, real numbers and representation of numbers on a number line. There are 6 exercises in Chapter 1 which includes representation of non-terminating recurring decimals and terminating recurring decimals on the number line. You will also learn the law of integral powers in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Polynomials

Class 9 Maths Chapter 2 takes you through the different types of polynomials like trinomials, monomials, linear polynomials, constant polynomials and more. In the CBSE Class 9 Chapter 2 on polynomials, discover concepts such as factor theorem, algebraic identities of quadratic polynomials, split the middle theorem, algebraic identities for cubic polynomials etc.

Chapter 3 – Coordinate Geometry

Maths Class 9 solutions for Chapter 3 has answers to three exercise questions. Understand how to work with the XY plane. Also, learn about plotting points correctly on a graph paper with accurate names and notations.

Chapter 4 – Linear Equations in Two Variables

In this chapter, get expert answers on forming linear equations, solving linear equations and providing a graphical representation of linear equations. Learn the equation ax + by + c = 0 in two variables with our NCERT solutions.

Chapter 5 – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry

Learn to write answers on topics such as axioms, postulates and more. In this chapter, you will be able to find out how Euclid’s Geometry can be used for defining geometrical shapes.

Chapter 6 – Lines and Angles

Class 9 Maths solutions for this chapter helps you confidently answer the NCERT textbook questions on topics such as parallel lines, co-interior angles, transversals, angle sum property of a triangle etc. You will learn how to provide the proofs for theories related to vertically opposite angles, angles of a triangle and more.

Chapter 7 – Triangles

Our experts have covered topics such as isosceles triangle, congruence of geometric figures, inequalities in a triangle etc. There are two theorems in this chapter which you will have to use for proving the data given in the questions.

Chapter 8 – Quadrilaterals

Get solutions related to parallelograms, angles in parallelograms, diagonal properties of parallelograms and mid-point theorem in this chapter. NCERT solutions for Class 9 Maths Chapter 8 can be used to understand the properties of quadrilaterals. 

Chapter 9 – Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles

Chapter 9 gives you a detailed explanation of the concept of area. Find answers for questions related to area of regions, area of parallelograms and area of triangles with the expert CBSE Class 9 Maths solutions for this chapter.

Chapter 10 – Circles

Find solutions on chords of a circle, properties of equal chords and cyclic quadrilaterals. You will get to learn about topics such as the angle subtended by an arc of a circle, the angle subtended by a chord at a point etc. Also, get answers to the 6 exercises from Chapter 10 in our CBSE Class 9 Maths solutions.

Chapter 11 – Constructions

Learn the construction of triangles in this chapter. Find out about bisectors of a line segment. Understand how to measure 45-degree, 60-degree and 90-degree angles while studying the topic of constructions.

Chapter 12 – Heron’s Formula

Get answers on Heron’s formula and the applications of Heron’s formula in this chapter. At Phoenixtutor, find CBSE Class 9 Maths solutions to the 2 exercises in Chapter 12 from the Maths NCERT textbook. Using Heron’s formula, learn to find the area of triangles and area of polygons.

Chapter 13 – Surface Areas and Volumes

Learn the concepts of the surface area of a cone, cuboid, cylinder etc. by practising the NCERT solutions from this chapter. Our NCERT solutions will also help you understand the problems related to the surface areas and volumes of cones, cuboids, cylinders and more.

Chapter 14 – Statistics

Find out how you can group enormous data into a tabular form and also learn about the measures of central tendency through this chapter. NCERT solutions for Class 9 Maths Chapter 14 can be used as a reference for learning concepts such as mean, mode and median. Also, understand how to represent data through bar graphs, histograms etc.

Chapter 15 – Probability

Learn about the techniques that are used to find probable answers for simple events by studying this interesting chapter on Probability. Understand the concept of the experimental approach in probability. To get assistance in answering the exercise questions from Chapter 15, use our CBSE Class 9 Maths solutions.

Class 8 Science

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science is an essential for CBSE students studying in class 8. NCERT science solutions for Class 8 is framed by expert science teachers to help students in their class 8 exam preparation and to clear the doubts and clarifications. With Phoenixtutorlive.com students can get the answers to the questions provided in the textbook. Our solutions will help you in understanding the concepts in a much better way and to prepare for the examinations.

If you have trouble in understanding a topic related to science, you can verify the answers to the questions given at the end of each topic of science book. Phoenixtutorlive.com provides CBSE class 8 science solutions learn easily from anywhere and at any time.

Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science

  • These solutions include chapter-wise & exercise-wise solutions to class 8 science textbook questions
  • The solutions are easy to understand and are provided in simple words.
  • Diagrams are included for better understanding.
  • CBSE Class 8 Science Solutions are given in a step-by-step manner to help students understand each concept easily.

NCERT Class 8 Science Solutions Chapter Brief:

Chapter 1: Crop Production and Management

This chapter has been included to make students understand how the food is being produced through agricultural practices. The basic practices of crop production include the following points which are explained in detail in this chapter.

  • Preparation of soil
  • Sowing
  • Adding manure and fertilizers
  • Irrigation
  • Protecting from weeds
  • Harvesting
  • Storage

Moreover, the traditional and modern method of irrigation has been explained. At the end the short brief of animal husbandry is described.

Chapter 2: Microorganisms

NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 2 starts with the definition of microorganism and then its concepts have been explained with the help of 2 activities. After that, it has been explained how micro-organism plays an important role in our lives through various examples:

  • Making of curd and bread
  • commercial use of microorganism
  • Use of microorganism in medicines
  • Vaccine
  • Increasing soil fertility

After this, it has also been explained that microorganism is harmful and can cause various diseases to humans, animals and plants. Food poisoning is caused due to these harmful micro-organisms. Further in this chapter, different methods of food preservation also explained. The chapter ended with the nitrogen fixation and nitrogen cycle which is described by a diagram.

Chapter 3: Synthetic Fibres and Plastics

Chapter 3 of NCERT Class 8 science book describes the synthetic fibres and its type (rayon, nylon, polyester and acrylic). Along with this, the characteristics of synthetic fibres are explained in detail. Then, the chapter introduces students to plastics, its properties and effect of it in the environment.

Chapter 4: Materials – Metals and Non-Metals

NCERT Class 8 Science Chapter 4 describes the physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. To explain these properties in a better way, activities are included in the NCERT book. At the end uses of metals and non-metals are explained.

Chapter 5: Coal and Petroleum

This chapter talks about natural resources and their classification. It explains that coal, petroleum and natural gas are fossil fuels that are formed from the dead remains of living organisms millions of years ago. Then it describes how coke, coal tar and coal gas are formed from coal. This chapter also describes refining of petroleum. Further, the concept of natural gas is explained. The chapter is ended by making students aware that natural resources are limited so we should use them wisely.

Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame

In this chapter, students will study about combustion and its different types. It has been beautifully explained with the help of activities. The measures to control the fire is mentioned. After this, the concept of flame and structure of flame is explained. The chapter is ended with the topic of fuel, fuel efficiency and harmful effects of burning the fuel.

Chapter 7: Conservation of Plants and Animals

This chapter put emphasis on the deforestation and its cause, consequences of deforestation, how to conserve forests and wildlife. Further, it explains about Biosphere reserve, flora and fauna, endemic species, wildlife sanctuary, national park, red data book, migration, recycling of paper and at the end reforestation.

Chapter 8: Cell – Structure and Functions

In chapter 8, students will get to know that cell is the smallest living part of an organism. They will learn that cells exhibit a variety of shapes and sizes and a number of cells vary from organism to organism. The cell structure and function are described. The different parts of the cells are explained in detail:

  • Cell Membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus

The chapter ended with the comparison of plants and animal cell.

Chapter 9: Reproduction in Animals

In this chapter, students will study that there are two modes of reproduction i.e, sexual and asexual reproduction, through which animal reproduce. The topic of sexual reproduction is described in detail where students will get familiar with the male reproductive organs, female reproductive organs, fertilization, development of the embryo, viviparous and oviparous animal. At the end of this chapter, asexual reproduction is explained.

Chapter 10: Reaching the Age of Adolescence

NCERT Class 8 Science chapter 10, students will learn the role of hormones that bring change in the human body and transform a child into an adult. The chapter starts with the explanation of Adolescence and Puberty. Then, the changes introduced during puberty are explained:

  • Increase in height
  • Change in body shape
  • Voice change
  • Increased activity of sweat and sebaceous glands
  • development of sexual organs
  • Reaching mental, intellectual and emotional maturity

The chapter further explains the topics of secondary sexual characters, the role of hormones in initiating reproductive function, reproductive phase of life in humans, sex determination, other hormones except for sex hormones, the role of hormones in completing the life history of insects and frogs, reproductive health.

Chapter 11: Force and Pressure

This chapter is an important part of physics. Students will find this chapter interesting as lots of activities are given to explain the concepts. It explains how a force arises from the interaction of two objects. Then it explains that force can be a push or a pull. It can change the state of motion or shape of an object. Then the topics such as contact forces, non-contact forces, pressure, the pressure exerted by liquids and gases, atmospheric pressure are elaborated in detail.

Chapter 12: Friction

This chapter talks about the force of friction, factors affecting friction, how friction can be increased and reduced. At the end of this chapter, the topic of fluid friction is described.

Chapter 13: Sound

Sound plays an important role in humans lives by helping us to communicate with each other. Here, in this chapter students will get all answers related to sound such as how sound produces, how does it travel, how do we hear sound, why some sounds are louder.

Chapter 14: Chemical Effects of Electric Current

This chapter explains that some liquids are a good conductor of electricity and some are a poor conductor of electricity. Further, it elaborates the topic on “chemical effects of electric current” and electroplating.

Chapter 15: Some Natural Phenomena

This chapter will discuss the destructive natural phenomena i.e., lighting and earthquakes. At the end of the chapter steps to minimize the destruction from these natural phenomena is also explained. This chapter has been added so that students become aware of such natural phenomena and protect themselves from such situations.

Chapter 16: Light

The world is full of colours and beautiful things. This chapter will let us know that through the light we are able to see the things around us. This chapter explains the law of reflection, regular and diffused reflection, multiple reflections. It also describes that sunlight is known as white light and it consists of 7 colours. Splitting of light into its constituent colour is known as dispersion. The human eye is explained with a diagram. At the end the chapter explains how we should take care of our eyes and how visually impaired persons can read and write.

Chapter 17: Stars and The Solar System

This chapter talks about the celestial objects, the moon, stars and constellations. After this, the solar system has been described along with the feature of each planet included in the solar system. Then some other members of the solar system are also described which includes asteroids, comets, meteors and meteorites, artificial satellites.

Chapter 18: Pollution of Air and Water

This chapter makes aware of the harmful changes that are taking place in our surrounding due to air and water pollution and its effect on human lives. The chapter starts with air pollution and how air gets polluted. Then it describes the impact of air pollution on Taj Mahal. Further, the concept of the greenhouse effect and methods to reduce air pollution are explained. After this, the chapter discusses water pollution and how water gets polluted. At the end, it describes the method through which water is purified and water pollution can be controlled.

Class 8 Mathematics

Looking for the best comprehensive and accurate teachings for Class 8 Mathematics? Look no further anymore, your search now ends here! Phoenixtutor’s best Mathematics expert’s detailed teachings of Class 8 on this page will help you to understand and solve all your doubts and clarifications. In case you are stuck or facing any doubts while going through portions or solutions, just sign-up with Phoenixtutor and register for your live session with our expert teachers. Science and Mathematics are two important branches and if you are looking for reliable and accurate teacher, you will find that with Phoenixtutor.

Chapter 1: Rational Numbers

In this chapter, you’ll be learning concerning properties of Real numbers, integers, whole numbers, rational numbers and natural numbers – independent, associative and closure. Roll of one and opposite of multiplication and addition. Representation of a rational number on number line and to search for rational numbers between any two rational numbers. Additive identity (0) and also the multiplicative identity (1). 

Chapter 2: Linear Equations in One Variable

The chapter linear equations in one variable deals with linear expression in one variable solely. We all know that pure mathematics equations area unit equality involving variables. In linear equations the values of expression on LHS area unit up to values on RHS. There are six exercises in this chapter with sixty-five questions in them. To resolve these equations, we tend to perform an equivalent mathematical operation on either side of the equation, in order that the balance isn’t disturbed. There are unit equations during this chapter within which variable is merely one facet or variable is on each the perimeters, reducing into easy equation so to resolve and applications supported linear equations.

Chapter 3: Understanding Quadrilaterals

The chapter Understanding quadrilaterals of CBSE category 8 Mathematics – an easy curved shape created of solely line segments is termed polygonal shape and also the curves that don’t seem to be closed don’t seem to be polygonal shape. kinds of polygonal shape – Triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon. A diagonal could be a line section connecting 2 non-consecutive vertices of a polygonal shape. The add of external angles of any polygonal shape is 360. A tetragon could be a quadrilateral with every try of opposite sides parallel

Chapter 4: Practical Geometry

Practical Geometry includes the constructing a quadrilateral four sides and one diagonal area unit given or once 2 adjacent sides and 3 angles area unit given or once 3 sides and 2 enclosed angles area unit given, etc. victimization the given specification, the quadrilateral is drawn unambiguously in this chapter. Furthermore, you will enjoy learning this chapter as this chapter includes drawing different types of quadrilaterals. This will make you well-versed all the concepts of quadrilateral for further classes. 

Chapter 5: Knowledge Handling

The collection of information to check and analyze it any concerning any fact/case study is termed data. Organize the data in a systematic method or in a very needed manner so interpret it’s referred to as data handling. to induce clear plan concerning any knowledge it’s portrayed diagrammatically as a pictograph, a bar graph, double bar graph, pie chart and histogram. during this chapter, a quick discussion concerning likelihood is additionally given

Chapter 6: Square and Square Roots

The square and square roots chapter offers a plan concerning a way to realize the roots of variety. If variety, say x is expressed because the square of the other variety, say y, then y is that the root of x. root is that the inverse operation of square. A number is termed excellent square if its root could be a number. the strategy of finding sq. roots of a decimal variety is often used even in higher categories

Chapter 7: Cube and Cube Roots

In cube and cube roots, there are numerous strategies to seek out cubes/cube roots of any variety. we will get cubes of numbers by adding consecutive odd numbers pattern. Prime resolving technique is additionally accustomed realize cubes or cube roots. within the prime resolving technique, if each issue seems thrice, then the quantity is ideal cube

Chapter 8: Comparing Quantities

Comparing quantities compares the rise or decrease of percentages, marked value, sales value, discount, discounted values of the article checking whether or not profit or drawing card. Treatment of extra expense throughout the acquisition of a piece. excise tax and price as well as or excluding the tax. interest and interest once interest is compounded half yearly, quarterly, monthly or yearly. comparison interest and interest on an equivalent quantity

Chapter 9: Algebraic Expressions and Identities

This chapter offers a basic plan concerning what area unit pure mathematics expressions and identities and their implementation. Terms area unit additional to create pure mathematics expression and these terms themselves is shaped because the product of things. The numeral issue of a term is termed its constant. Monomials, binomials, trinomials then on, relying the quantity of terms. Addition of pure mathematics expression taking like terms along and multiplication of polynomials by polynomials. commonplace identities and their uses in finding pure mathematics expressions

Chapter 10: Visualizing Solid Shapes

In visualizing solid shapes, we’ll study concerning the solid objects having length, breadth and height that’s why it’s referred to as 3-D figures. for instance, cubes, cuboids, cones, cylinders, spheres, hemispheres, etc. area unit the 3-D figures. during this chapter we’ll attempt to realize faces, edges and vertices of some solid figures like cuboids, triangular pyramids, triangular and sq. base prisms. Application of Euler’s formula F + V – E = two, wherever F – Faces, V – Vertices and E – Edges.

Chapter 11: Mensuration

In mensuration Chapter, we will exercise the issues dependent on perimeter and areas of plane closed figure and surface area (sum of areas of its faces) and volume (measure of area involved by a solid) of some solid figure like cube, cuboid, cylinder and so on. Transformation identified with volume as 1 cubic cm = 1 mL, 1 L = 1,000 cubic cm and 1 cubic m = 1,000,000 cubic cm = 1,000 L

Chapter 12: Exponents and Powers

Primary points you will study in Exponents and Powers: Powers with negative exponents, scientific documentation of decimal numbers, questions dependent on laws of exponents, utilization of exponents to express the numbers in standard form and comparing of extremely large numbers to small numbers

Chapter 13: Direct and Inverse Proportions

This chapter entails questions based on direct proportion and inverse proportion. Direct and inverse proportion can be identified based on relative increase of decrease of other quantity with respect to the first one. Most of the questions which will find in this chapter are interesting and based on daily life

Chapter 14: Factorization

This chapter deals with factorization of natural numbers and the algebraic expression. These factors can be either numbers, algebraic variables or algebraic variables or expressions. You will learn Method of Factorization of common factors, by regrouping terms, using identities and using factors of the form (x + a) (x + b). Division of algebraic expression – monomial by another monomial, polynomial by monomial and polynomial by polynomial. Error finding in algebraic equations

Chapter 15: Introduction to Graphs

You will start with introduction to graphs – what is the purpose of the graph (visual representations of data collected) is to show numerical facts in visual form so that everyone can understand it easily, more clearly and quickly. Types of graphs which you are already aware of like – Bar graph, histogram, pie chart, line graph and a linear graph (on xy – plane). Also, you will be studying about application which are based on graph – Quantity & cost, principal & simple interest and time & distance using dependent variable & independent variable

Chapter 16: Playing with Numbers

In CBSE class 8 Mathematics, chapter 16, playing with numbers, you will be dealing with numbers in general form, fun with games in numbers and puzzles in which letters take the place of digits in an arithmetic problem. Divisibility tests such as – divisibility by 10, 2, 5, 3 & 9 and 11. Questions based on divisibility test will be there to find the missing term in a number.

Students can get proper exposure to all the basic concepts by studying solutions from these NCERT Mathematics Class 8 Solution. And Phoenixtutor elevates your preparations for a plethora of exams, competitive tests and even Class 8 final exams starting right from selecting the right tutor, assessing individual academic performances and helping you tackle challenging areas which require adequate problem-solving preparation. Additionally, you will have the biggest advantage of studying at your own schedule and pace using Mobiles, iPads, PCs, tablets or any other electronic devices that features app support and media playback capabilities, giving you a benefit of stress-free studying and prepare for the exams in a relaxed manner at your own pace and convenience.  Getting NCERT solution class 8 Mathematics through Phoenixtutor is aimed to provide you with a better learning experience. Learn at your own pace and in the safety of your home without worrying about traffic jams and time wasted on daily travel to and from the coaching center. You don’t have to worry about finding the perfect teacher who can properly guide you towards a complete understanding of the subject and its important concepts. One of the greatest benefits of learning with Phoenixtutor is that as a student you can choose to learn anywhere and at any time of your choice! You are the one to determine when and what pace you want to study a particular topic and also if you want to be get tutored through our live sessions, it is up to you!